American Graphic Design Theory

Hypodermic theory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia  August 29, 2013 – 00:01
American Modernism: Graphic Design 1920–1960 (mini edition

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Hypodermic Theory is a model of communication theory , also known as the Magic Bullet Theory . According to this model, a message released by the media is immediately accepted and spread among all receivers in equal proportion.

The concepts were developed by the American School in the 30s . Its main purpose was to provide scientific and empirical bases for the development of communication systems, with emphasis on the effects of communication on the behavior of the population. Many scientists were hired by the army, like Carl Hovland, as part of the war effort during World War II.

The design of communication that supports this model assumes society organized mass, ie, "each member of the public is personally and directly affected by the message" ( Wright Mills 1975, 79) and "Each is a single atom that reacts individually to the orders and suggestions of means of mass communication. " Thus, the model was considered subsequently overly simplistic because in their model did not consider the role of social differences such as group membership identification, and the role of opinion leaders.

On the other hand, the concept of "mass" as magma indistinct subjects "atomic", each reached directly by communication favored statistical calculations and measurement of the effects of communication so that many research techniques and explanatory models currently used by vehicles communication, research institutes and market advertising agencies rooted in that period.

The Hypodermic Theory, also called the magic bullet theory, or even "mass communication research" coincides historically with the inter-war period (between the first and second world wars). Responds primarily to the question: what effect they produce on a mass society? Moreover, one can describe the model as a hypodermic theory of advertising and the advertising , including the term "propaganda" in a very broad sense, ie, the diffusion of concepts, ideas, values ​​and attitudes through communication systems mass (radio, newspaper, TV, film, magazine). It is a broader conception of "propaganda", which is not restricted to what we know as "commercial", but the actual diffusion of ideas in spaces editorial, informational, educational and entertainment.

To better understand the Hypodermic Theory, it is essential to define the concept of mass society. The mass consists of a homogeneous set of individuals, while its members are considered equal, indistinguishable, even if they come from different environments, heterogeneous, and all social groups. It is made by people who do not know, who are separated from each other in space and have little or no opportunity to exercise a reciprocal action or influence. (Blumer, 1936 and 1946). The isolation of the individual mass is a prerequisite of the first communications theories.


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